With the constant barrage of Hollywood celebrities who have, in recent years it seems really brought cosmetic surgery to the forefront of the world stage as something to enhance your appearance and correct visual flaws, we seem to forget that plastic surgery, as its inception was put into use for medical reasons in Ancient India and consequently, Italy. Lets take a look at the history of cosmetic/plastic surgery!
800 BC, India: Sushruta, arguably considered the father of surgery makes major advances in the all important fields of plastic and cataract surgery. His works alongwith his contemporary, Charak's original Sanskrit works are then translated into Arabic and subsequently make their way into Europe.
The Italian families of Sicily and Gaspare Tagliacozzi are acclimatized to these techniques as well.
Side note: Ancient Romans & Egyptians too were significantly decently versed in performing cosmetic surgery from around the 1st Century BC (for example repairing damaged ears). Aulus Cornelius Celsus left extremely accurate anatomical descriptions.
1794: British physcists arrived in India to see rhinoplasties being performed by indigenous methods. Reports of these are published in Gentleman's Magazine that year.
Joseph Constantine Carpue spends 20 years in India studying the local plastic surgery techniques.
1815: Carpue performs the first major milestone surgery in the Western world. Surgery however was quite dangerous, especially when performed on the neck or face at the time so it wasn't commonly done up until the 19th/20th centuries. Anesthesia - lacking surgeries of course were profoundly painful so the bringing about of penicillin was a positive step forwards into making elective surgery a very real possibility.
1792: Chopart performs a lip procedure using a flap from the neck.
1814: Carpue successfully (again) performs a plastic surgery procedure on a British military officer who lost his nose (reconstructive rhinoplasty surgery in its early phases) to toxic effects in a mercury treatment.
1818: Carl Ferdinand von Graefe publishes a game changing book "Rhinoplastik" in which he successfully and intelligently modified the visionary Italian (and originally Indian) method of using a skin graft from the arm as opposed to using the decayed flap.
1827: The first American plastic surgeon (of note) arrives - John Peter Mettauer. That year, he performs the first ever cleft palate corrective procedure with tools he impressively designed himself.
1845: Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach writes an exemplary text on rhinoplasty "Operative Chirurgie" and essentially introduces to the world cosmetic surgery as we largely know it today: to improve the appearance of the nose through operative reconstruction. And thus is born the concept of plastic surgery as we understand it to this day.
20th Century: Harold Gillies, widely coronated the Father of Plastic Surgery, comes about during World War I from his homebase in New Zealand to London where he proactively works towards developing many of the common techniques of plastic surgery that lead to what we employ today for the very same (or similar) procedures. He does so while nursing soldiers who have suffered from disfigured facial injuries. He continues to do the same during World War II.
In fact in 1917, Walter Yeo was purportedly considered the first man to undergo cosmetic surgery performed by Sir Harold Gillies himself. He received skin flap surgery to help his war wounds.There you have it! Its fascinating to see how what we perceive of the words "plastic surgery" has dramatically changed over the years, from medical to reconstruction to cosmetic purposes. We hope you enjoyed this!
Dr Edward Kwak of ESK Facial Plastic Surgery is Manhattan's prime facial cosmetic surgeon. Make your first consultation now!
Humans have an innate desire to consistently look their best. And in today's world of constant media saturation, this desire is only heightened. When faced with images of celebrities with their teams of hair & makeup people, cosmetic surgery access and such, we are more and more motivated to look a certain way. And this is nothing to be ashamed of! Many women (and increasingly now, men) consider cosmetic surgery but not many have a firm grasp of what it's all about. Here's our FAQ on the issue to help aid you make that all-important decision. Because a simple nose job can change your life. We're going to be doing a series of posts focusing on singular procedures, especially those offered here at ESK Facial Plastic Surgery. Today, we look at a broad overview.
Cosmetic surgery is essentially an elective surgical procedure to reshape and sculpt facial or bodily structures to improve appearance and boost a person's self esteem. It is important to have completely realistic expectations when opting for plastic surgery. Listen intently to your doctor - he will let you know what to expect. Cosmetic surgery includes everything from BOTOX to rhinoplasty (more commonly known as a "nose job"), from specifically Cosmetic eyelid surgeries (blepharoplasty) to lip enhancements. There's endless options for achieving your desired look. Procedures can be invasive (such as a facelift) or non-invasive (such as wrinkle treatment).
Cosmetic surgery can make you look and feel your absolute best - it can improve social relationships, job performances and help achieve long term life goals. If you're convinced that this is for you, you should research the procedure fully (like reading this blog coherently) and then make an appointment with a specialist in your area. If you are based in New York, head over to ESK Facial Plastic Surgery and have your first consultation (we also have online consultations for outstation patients).
Back in 2007, nearly 12 million cosmetic surgery procedures were done in the US alone. This shows the innate desire within people to be the best that they can. Technological advances can be in part attributed to the sky-rocketing number of people investing in cosmetic surgery. New plastic surgery breakthroughs continue to happen. Plastic surgery encompasses cosmetic & reconstructive surgeries. Like any other surgery, there are associated risks (mostly to do with invasive procedures) so its important to do thorough research and be in sync with your doctor.
If you have any further questions or comments, feel free to leave a comment, tweet us or post on our facebook wall. Make your first consultation today! We're always happy to assist you in this fruitful journey.
If you’re on the far side of your 40th birthday, you probably remember when people used to practice face-contorting isometric exercises and pat themselves under the chin in vain attempts to stave off the wrinkles and sagging skin of old age. These early attempts at non-surgical cosmetic treatment may have made us feel good but they failed to stop the march of time. At that time, a facelift was the only way to smooth facial wrinkles and pull the slack from sagging skin.
The introduction of Botox and other skin fillers launched a new era in facial plastic surgery. For the first time, New York facial plastic surgeons were able to offer their patients viable non-surgical cosmetic treatments to rejuvenate aging skin that produced excellent, dependable results. Affordability, negligent healing time and immediate results have made non-surgical facial cosmetic surgery treatments wildly popular. According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, last year facial plastic surgeons performed nearly 8 million minimally invasive cosmetic procedures. A significant 83% of those cosmetic procedures were non-surgical.
Patient demand for non-surgical cosmetic treatments has led to the development of new technology and new cosmetic procedures that expand the New York facial plastic surgeon’s repertoire beyond Botox and other injectables. Ultherapy is one of the most effective of the new cutting-edge, non-surgical facial cosmetic treatments. Now available from ESK Facial Plastic Surgery, Ultherapy is a unique ultrasound procedure for the treatment of facial wrinkles and sagging facial skin. Using targeted ultrasound waves, Ultherapy stimulates the body’s production of collagen. Tightening and toning the face and neck, Ultherapy rejuvenates the appearance and texture of facial skin without surgery.
Not that long ago, Manhattan facial plastic surgeons were limited to a single procedure – a full facelift – to remove unsightly wrinkles and sags from age-ravaged skin. The expense and recovery time required for those old-school facelifts made them an unrealistic option for many women and men. The more recent development of targeted facial plastic surgery procedures that are intended to repair or rejuvenate a specific problem or facial area has made facial plastic surgery far more affordable and available to a much broader section of the population. The introduction of new technology and less intrusive facial plastic surgery techniques have improved patient recovery times which increasing patient satisfaction with surgery results. According to the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, the result has been a 35% increase in the number of facelifts performed in the U.S. between 2009 and 2010.
Today, New York cosmetic surgeons are able to offer patients a myriad of facial cosmetic surgery options to choose from, including a browlift, forehead lift, necklift, eyelid surgery, chin surgery, cheek surgery and lip enhancement. Each surgical option targets a very specific facial problem, allowing patients to address a single appearance if they prefer not to undergo a full facelift. An experienced Manhattan facial plastic surgeon like Dr. Edward Kwak can also develop a staged treatment plan that allows cosmetic surgery patients to accomplish their appearance goals over time for better cost and time control.
Cutting-edge developments in non-surgical facial treatments now offer NY cosmetic surgery patients viable non-surgical solutions for combating wrinkles and sagging skin that produce excellent results. Joining Botox and other popular skin fillers, Dr. Kwak now offers the latest non-surgical cosmetic treatment, Ultherapy, a state-of-the-art ultrasound treatment for rejuvenating aging skin.
Botox Cosmetic has been the gold standard for facial wrinkle removal for years. Today’s most popular wrinkle treatment, Botox is facing some stiff competition from newer treatments, including Dysport, Restylane, Juvaderm, Radiesse and Sculptra. As Manhattan facial plastic surgeons have begun to develop long-term experience with these newer products, they are discovering that Botox is not always the best choice for every type of facial wrinkle. As Dr. Edward Kwak explains on the ESK website, removal of dynamic wrinkles and static wrinkles is more effectively achieved with different skin fillers. Botox can no longer be considered the one-size-fits-all solution to facial wrinkles.
A recent study compared the effectiveness of Botox and Dysport, two different kinds of botulinum toxin used to treat dynamic wrinkles, in alleviating crow’s feet. Dysport was found to be somewhat superior to Botox in erasing the tiny lines that gather at the outer corners of the eye. However, it is important to note that the study, recently published in the Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery, was limited to a 30-day trial of only 90 participants. A lengthier trial of a larger cross-section of patients will be required to determine whether Dysport can maintain its edge over Botox in larger trials and over the long term.
Study participants were injected with Botox on one side of their face and Dysport on the other. While there was no discernible difference when facial muscles were at rest, both researchers and patients preferred the Dysport side during normal activities. The results took many plastic surgeons, who typically use the two products interchangeably, by surprise as both they and their patients have found the products to produce comparable results. Cosmetic surgeons also noted that some patients have a personal preference for one product over the other. Bottom line? Heed your facial plastic surgeon’s recommendation.
Although they look equally unattractive when you look in the mirror, but all facial wrinkles are not the same. New York facial plastic surgery patients are often surprised to discover that there are two different types of facial wrinkles, each requiring a different plastic surgery treatment.
Dynamic wrinkles. The wrinkles that form across the forehead, between the eyebrows and around the eyes are called dynamic wrinkles. Dynamic wrinkles develop in areas that are underlain by major facial muscles and are the result of repetitive muscle movement over time. People who are under constant stress or in pain or who have vision problems frequently furrow their brow or squint. In time, the constant contraction of their facial muscles can result in the development of dynamic wrinkles in the areas of greatest muscle movement.
Treatment for dynamic wrinkles. Manhattan facial plastic surgeons like Dr. Edward Kwak favor the use of Botox to treat dynamic wrinkles. The injection of Botox into a wrinkled area of the face slightly weakens the underlying muscle that is responsible for causing the wrinkles. Botox gently relaxes the muscle so that it cannot tense or bunch, preventing the skin from wrinkling.
Static wrinkles. When wrinkles are caused by genetics or environmental factors, they are called static wrinkles. Static wrinkles most often form in the nasolabial fold in the facial area around the nose and mouth. Genetics plays a major role in the development of deep laugh or frown lines, but the spidery wrinkles that radiate from the lips as people age is caused by excess sun exposure, an environmental issue.
Treatment for static wrinkles: Injectable fillers such as Restylane, Juvaderm, Radiesse and Sculptra are typically used to treat or “plump up” the skin to remove static wrinkles.
Have you ever looked in the mirror when no one was looking and given your neck line a little lift or brow a little pull? Wish it would stay that way? Have you ever considered getting a procedure to address those problem areas but were to worried about the recovery time?
If you answered yes to these questions, I would encourage you to come learn more about a new device we are pleased to offer in our New York facial plastic surgery practice, called Ulthera. Ulthera is a non-invasive treatment device that tones facial muscles, tightening and lifting the overlying facial skin. Problem areas such as facial and neck jowls, droopy eyes and eyebrows now can all be addressed with minimal to no downtime.
This device works by using ultrasound technology to pinpoint focal thermal energy to the underlying facial muscles. As the energy is delivered to the facial muscle, the muscle is tightened causing a lifting effect to the overlying facial skin. Ulthera is currently the only device FDA approved for cosmetic facial lifting.
Ulthera treatments occur in the comfort of our office here in New York. Isolated problem regions (i.e. face, neck, brow) can be performed alone or in combination. Full face treatments typically take about one hour and does not require general anesthesia. Most patients require only one treatment session. Final results usually takes 2-3 months but patients frequently notice improvements immediately after the treatment.
This device can also be used as a preventative treatment for early signs of facial aging or it can be used to maintain your current look. We would be happy to discuss if Ulthera is right for you at your next consultation.